Antarctica Is Missing A Chunk Of Sea Ice Bigger Than Greenland – What’s Going On?

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Deadly heatwaves, raging wildfires and record global temperatures are upon us. However removed from the flames, on the southernmost tip of the planet, one thing simply as stunning is unfolding.

It’s Antarctic winter, a time when the realm of floating sea ice across the continent must be quickly increasing. This yr although, the freeze-up has been occurring in gradual movement.

After reaching a record low minimum extent this summer season there may be now an space of open ocean greater than Greenland. If the “lacking” sea ice had been a rustic, it’d be the tenth largest on the planet.

Graph of Antarctic sea ice extent showing record low 2023 values
Antarctic sea ice extent in 2023 in comparison with the 1981-2010 common. (Credit score: Zachary Labe)

Who cares about Antarctic sea ice?

Within the face of extra immediate climate concerns, why does Antarctic sea ice matter?

Floating sea ice is a pivotal local weather puzzle piece. With out it, international temperatures could be hotter as a result of its brilliant, white floor acts like a mirror, reflecting the solar’s power again to house. This retains the Antarctic – and by extension, the planet – cool.

Antarctic sea ice additionally performs a very vital function in controlling ocean currents and will act as a buffer that protects floating ice shelves and glaciers from collapsing and including to international sea ranges.

In brief, the lack of Antarctic sea ice issues for the entire planet.

Southern sea ice: a brief historical past

Yearly Antarctic sea ice undergoes a transformation: from its summer season minimal in February, its space will increase greater than sixfold in the course of the winter freeze-up which reaches its peak in September. A transparent method to monitor the well being of Antarctic sea ice is to trace these peaks and troughs.

Information started in 1979 and till 2015, the yearly common extent of frozen sea round Antarctica was rising ever so barely. But previously seven years, Antarctic sea ice has modified dramatically.

Floating sea ice near the Antarctic peninsula in December 2017.
Floating sea ice close to the Antarctic peninsula in December 2017. (Credit score: Ella Gilbert)
After a report excessive two years prior, the quantity of sea ice fell dramatically on the finish of 2016 to a report minimal in February 2017. This was adopted by successive low years with the southern hemisphere summer season report once more being damaged in February 2022 and most just lately, a new lowest extent of 1.79 million sq. kilometres being recorded in 2023, a fall of almost 10% from final yr’s summer season report.

Since February 2023, gradual regrowth has meant sea ice has fallen additional and additional behind the place it must be for the time of yr.

And now, in July, what we’re seeing is really outstanding.

A fancy image

Antarctic sea ice, and the way it’s affected by local weather change, has been so laborious to grasp as a result of there are such a lot of elements at play.

Wind patterns, storms, ocean currents and air and ocean temperatures all have an effect on how a lot of the ocean round Antarctica is roofed by ice they usually usually push and pull in several instructions. This implies it may be laborious to hyperlink the behaviour of Antarctic sea ice in any explicit yr, or over a number of years, to only one issue.

This complexity is behind the perplexing increase in Antarctic sea ice extent noticed between 1979 and 2015, and what makes it so laborious to grasp present situations.

Earlier than 2015, contrasting tendencies in sea ice development in several areas of the huge continent largely counterbalanced one another. What’s outstanding about 2023 is that these regional variations are largely absent.

How uncommon is it?

This yr’s report low summer season minimal and report gradual freeze-up are astonishing as a result of they fall thus far exterior the vary we’ve got come to count on.

Antarctic sea ice varies loads year-to-year, however even by Antarctic requirements that is nicely exterior the bounds of normality. Some specialists have tried to place a quantity on simply how uncommon this could be with out local weather change and arrived at “a once in 7.5-million-year event”.

Nonetheless, whereas the present state of affairs is actually off the charts, these charts don’t return very far, and so it’s laborious to make these kinds of statements with any actual certainty.

Given how complicated a system it’s, we are able to’t say conclusively whether or not the previous 40 years (the interval for which we’ve got satellite tv for pc observations) are an correct reflection of the “pure” behaviour of Antarctic sea ice. In actual fact, there’s good reason to suppose they aren’t. Which makes it troublesome to say precisely how uncommon this yr’s values are.

Nonetheless, whereas we might not be capable to put a precise quantity on it, we all know that this can be a uncommon occasion.

Is it local weather change?

In contrast with Arctic sea ice, the precipitous decline of which will be robustly linked to rising temperatures, Antarctic sea ice has proved extra enigmatic.

In response to greenhouse gasoline emissions, fashions have lengthy predicted a drop in Antarctic sea ice: a prediction that beforehand appeared at odds with the info.

Because the ocean and environment heat, we’d count on sea ice sandwiched between the 2 to shrink. However as scientists have come to be taught, Antarctic sea ice is extra difficult than that.

Fashions appear unreliable on this subject, which implies we nonetheless don’t know what Antarctic sea ice decline will appear to be. And whereas seven days could also be a very long time in politics, seven years is a short while relating to the local weather. It’s too early to say conclusively whether or not the current dramatic fall in Antarctic sea ice extent is just a blip within the report or, as now appears extra probably, the primary signal of a longer-lasting discount induced by local weather change.

What occurs in Antarctica doesn’t keep in Antarctica

Whatever the vagaries of Antarctic sea ice behaviour, the polar areas play an important function within the local weather system. And they’re altering earlier than our very eyes.

Antarctica isn’t only for the penguins: it issues for all of us.The Conversation

Article written by Ella Gilbert, Local weather Scientist, British Antarctic Survey and Caroline Holmes, Polar Local weather Scientist, British Antarctic Survey, Affiliate Lecturer, The Open University

This text is republished from The Conversation below a Artistic Commons license. Learn the original article.

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